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The Making of Malkha

  • Let’s start at the very beginning

    Before the big machines came, handloom cotton was made on a tiny scale, some steps of the cotton making process, such as spinning, were practically an individual enterprise, done in homes and in town squares, when people had time. They used locally grown cottons, bought and sold from each other and perpetuated essential cotton making skills within families and villages. Diminutive as this cotton making model seems, it was robust and resilient. Not only had it survived for millenia, it had made India the world leader in cotton fabrics for thousands of years.

    Then the giant spinning machines and power looms came and along with them came chemical dyes

    And they changed everything. They required the cotton to be beaten into bales. Their voracious appetites could not be satisfied by small village farms and individual spinners and painstakingly made natural dyes. They drew people away from their homes and villages to live beneath the enormous shadow that the machines cast. Spinning and weaving skills, handed down from generation to generation were swallowed by the machines. Local economies, kept vibrant by small trades and barter between farmers and artisans, faltered and eventually faded. The machines even changed what cotton we used, demanding a longer strain American varietal that drained the Indian soil and depleted the diverse local strains. They fed the chemical dye industry, that pollutes the rivers, sky and earth.

    Moving on to a new beginning

    While returning to the old way of making cotton is utopian in today’s world, restoration of a local, robust and resilient handloom cotton industry is decidedly not. Malkha combines thousands of years of Indian cotton making and natural dye expertise with modern engineering skills. Think of it as intentional technology.

    And herein is the (r)evolution.

    The Malkha process replaces large-scale spinning units with small-scale yarn-making units with machines that do not require the cotton to be compressed into bales, thereby preserving it’s intrinsic softness and bounciness. These small scale units provide the missing link in a fully rural cotton textile industry using local raw material and local skills. They restore spinning as a viable rural occupation. They enables farmers, spinners and weavers to benefit from each other. They create an incentive for cotton making skills to be passed from generation to generation.

    The Malkha insistence on using natural dyes, rejuvenates an interest in the complex art and science of natural dyeing. At the core of it, cotton is a finicky material, and so are natural dyes. As one Malkha member puts it, the combination of cotton and natural dyes is “... mind-blowingly capricious. Depending on the season, temperature, wind direction, the alignment of the stars, and the mood of polar bears, you get differently coloured and shaded fabrics. So achieving any kind of uniformity or consistency is not possible. No wonder hardly anyone sticks exclusively to natural dyes”. But we stubbornly do. And in doing so, we embrace not just the vibrancy and brilliance of natural dyes, we embrace the fickleness of nature and the challenge of restoring a dyeing [sic] art - the making of natural dyes and the elaborate preparation of cotton that is required for bright, permanent, washable colours.

    All in the fabric

    Over and over again, we hear the same message for Malkha customers. Awe at the vibrancy of the colors. Surprise for the way it drapes and swings. We believe this tremendous response to Malkha is a reflection of people’s intuitive appreciation for its unique qualities – the swing, the drape, the ability to breathe, to absorb, to hold colour. Each step in the Malkha process - spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing - plays a big role in imparting these qualities to the fabric. By handling the delicate cotton fibres gently, by avoiding the force and violence of conventional processing, it retains the springiness of the live fibres all the way into the cloth.

    Malkha …

    • Buys cotton in Jamikunta, 80 km from our spinning units [and that’s not local enough for us. We’re working on it. One step at a time, we try to remind our impatient selves]
    • Has 2 spinning units in Ellanthakunta and Tangalapally - cotton is delivered to these units in all its fluffy glory, only ginned (cleaned) but not baled.
    • Sends some yarn to the Hyderabad Dye House to be washed or dyed with natural dyes [this is also not local enough for us and we are in the process of setting up a dye house in Jangaon]
    • Has 4 weaving units - Ellanthakunta, Tangalapally and Pachnuru in Telangana and Kaza in Andhra Pradesh.
    • Supports both weavers working in loom sheds as well as weavers working on their looms at homes. The looms are both frame looms and pit looms.
    • Sends fabric to Machilipatnam [Kalamkari] and Gujarat [Ajrakh] to be traditionally printed with blocks made of seasoned teakwood, that are designed exclusively for Malkha by artists and designers and carved by expert block-makers.
    • Seeks to eventually enable each of these units, no matter what step in the cotton making process they are involved in, to become functionally and financially independent.
    • Looks forward eagerly for the demand for Malkha fabric to grow more and more so that we can set up more and more units and get more and more artisans on the path to dignity, respect and financial independence.
  • Spinning is what turns the lint of the cotton plant into yarn.

    Cotton lint is first put through a carding machine, where trash is removed and a loose blanket is formed, called a lap. Loosely twisted, the lap, now called carded sliver, moves to the draw-frame, where it is thinned down (drawn), the fibres straightened (parallelized) and equalized. This drawn sliver is taken to the fly-frame which twists and winds the cotton, the sliver, now the thickness of a pencil, onto large bobbins. Transferred to a ring-frame, which consists of any number of spindles, the sliver is finally drawn and twisted into yarn.

    Malkha spinning is different from conventional spinning in three ways:

    First, it saves the lint from the enormously damaging steam-pressing known as baling, where the lively, springy, loose cotton fibres are compressed into a wood-like block, followed by the equally harmful bale-opening, where the blocks are torn apart again by metal saw-toothed rolls, and blown with force in the blow-room, back into individual fibres. Doing away with baling and unbaling not only saves quantities of valuable energy, but also allows the Malkha yarn to retain the absorbency, bounce and lustre that is natural to cotton.

    Secondly, Malkha yarn-making is small in scale, providing work for village folk in their own neighbourhoods.

    Finally, Malkha spinning makes yarn specifically for handlooms, as part of a textile process designed to retain all the good qualities of cotton.

    The yarn produced by Malkha spinning may be woven into kora (i.e. non-dyed) fabric (or saree or dupatta) on handloom, or it may go through the intermediate stage of natural dyeing on its way to a coloured handwoven cloth.





  • Weaving is the process of passing a thread cross-wise (the weft) through alternate lengths of thread (the warp), creating the fabric.

    On a handloom, this is done by hand rather than being driven by electrical power. Sitting facing the length of the warp, the weaver pulls the cord that controls the shuttle, simultaneously pulling the moving sley towards her. The first action throws the weft yarn through the warp (hence the term throw shuttle ), and the second sets the weft yarn firmly in place.

    A hand-operated loom can be a pit loom or a frame loom. In the former, the supports of the loom are set into the floor facing a pit in which the pedals of the loom hang, while a frame loom is entirely self supported and sits above the floor. To weave Malkha cloth, both kinds are used. Kora Malkha cloth is woven on handloom using plain (non-dyed) yarn, while a combination of naturally-dyed coloured yarns (and kora yarn, if required) go into the weaving of coloured handwoven cloth.

    However, cotton yarn has to go through several stages before it is ready for the loom.

    Let us look at these steps meant to strengthen the yarn and arrange it in a position suitable for weaving.


    The warp is made up of cotton threads (yarn) arranged length-wise, stretched on the loom towards the weaver. To make the warp, yarn is wound to the required length on a warping wheel.


    The prepared warp is treated with starch and oil to make it stiff and smooth enough to withstand the rigour of weaving, a process known as sizing. Sizing is done by hand for pit loom weaving, for which the warp is stretched along its length on a bamboo frame. Natural starch is used, made from local staples like rice or millets, sprayed onto the stretched warp, then brushed with a sizing brush to spread it evenly and ensure that each thread is coated. For frame loom weaving, a hand-operated arrangement of bobbins with a drum performs a combined warping and sizing process. In this setup, brushing of yarn is eliminated.

    Weft Winding

    The weft yarn that passes across the fabric width is wound onto small bobbins by hand. A water-soaked yarn-spindle is subsequently loaded into a shuttle. The warp and weft yarns, strengthened and suitably arranged, are then set up on the handloom. In case of weft yarn, this merely involves placing the shuttle in its position on the loom, while in case of warp yarn, this involves an elaborate process called end-piecing, in which each thread of the warp is joined by hand to an end of a thread of the old warp still situated on the loom. The stage is now set for weaving of the yarn.



    Malkha yarn is woven into cloth on handlooms by both men and women. The weaver sitting at a handloom plays a far more decisive role in cloth making than the robotic activity of a powerloom operator. Bamboo or millet stalk reeds used on handlooms weaving Malkha are flexible, allowing the slubs of Malkha yarn to come through in both warp and weft. You will notice both directions, vertical and horizontal, of the slubbed, coarse-and-fine yarn in Malkha fabric. The slow speed processing of different stages of hand-weaving of cotton avoids the heat and stress created by electrically-powered weaving. Thus the handloom treats Malkha yarn with respect and ensures that the natural qualities of cotton retained during yarn-making are also preserved in the cloth. The handwoven Malkha fabric or the saree or dupatta may be directly available for sale, or it may go through the next stage of natural dyeing or printing.







  • And finally there is dyeing and printing.

    Natural dyeing using plant-based dyestuffs produces a variety of beautiful dyed fabrics with no environmental pollution. In ancient times, it was the brilliant and permanent dyeing of cotton, in which India was unrivalled. The Indian genius in natural dyeing lay in their mastery of the pre-treatment of cotton, enabling the production of bright, colour-fast, and washable fabrics.

    Cotton needs a complex series of pre-treatments before it absorbs any dye except indigo, with which it bonds naturally. Dyeing begins with the extraction of colouring matter from the vegetable dye material. In the second stage, the fibre to be dyed is mordanted, creating a bond between the colouring matter and the fibre. The yarn or fabric to be dyed is well scoured to remove natural oils, pre-treated in various ways, then heated in the extracted dye at different temperatures depending on the dye material, usually for about 30-45 minutes, for the dye to take on the fibre for a long-lasting effect.

    Natural indigo is the only dye that bonds naturally with cotton fibre, so it does not need mordanting. It is also the only dye that is done in a cold process and not in a hot bath. The traditional South Indian method of indigo dyeing involves fermenting the dye bath with a mixture of lime and the seeds of Cassia Tora, a complex process which takes several days. The yarn or fabric to be dyed is dipped into the fermented vats several times and allowed to oxidize between dips.

    A variety of plant-based products go into the dyeing of Malkha yarn: Indigofera Tinctoria for indigo, Acacia Catechu for brown,Terminalia Chebula (harda) and Punica Granatum (pomegranate rind) for yellow, and Onosma Echioides (kasimi) for grey. Red, made of non-toxic alizarin, a by-product of coal tar, is the only Malkha dye not of vegetable origin.

    The dyes we use at Malkha today …

    • Indigo To those in the business of natural dyes, Indigofera tinctoria - the source of the highly prized natural indigo dye is the true crown jewel of the Indian subcontinent. Nomadic people all over the world and American cowboys - all those who can’t bathe often - favoured indigo dye because its a natural antiseptic! At Malkha, we think that indigo dyed in the traditional way has eye-catching and mysterious carmine undertones. It takes 5 dips in the fermented vats to produce the indigo hue we desire. Our light indigo is dipped 3 times and our dark indigo is dipped 8 times.
    • Alizarin Red The only synthetic dye used by Malkha, Alizarin Red is a non-toxic by-product of coal tar. It creates a truly lovely and smooth scarlet when dyed on well-prepared, properly mordanted yarn.
    • Anar Green A soft, sophisticated grey-green, dyed with pomegranate skins and myrobalan galls with a touch of kasimi.
    • Anar Yellow A citrus yellow made from the outer rind of pomegranate mixed with myrobalan.
    • Indigo Green Back to primary color theory! We first dye the yarn yellow and then it gets a nice dip in the indigo blue vat. Double trouble! Our yellow is a citrus yellow made from the outer rind of pomegranate mixed with myrobalan. For indigo we use Indigofera tinctoria - the source of the highly prized natural indigo dye that we think is the true crown jewel of the Indian subcontinent.
    • Katha Brown Dyed with the waste from acacia catechu, or katha, the brown paste in betel leaf paans - we’re still debating whether this color is best described as cafe au lait or sandalwood paste. Do weigh in.
    • Manjishtha Brick Red Extracted from the dainty Rubia cordifolia creeper, this dye produces various shades of peach or red, depending on the mineral content of local waters.
    • Ratanjyot Dove Grey A gentle dove grey emerges from the medicinal plant Onosma echioides, a biennial native to the lower Himalaya mountains.
    • Black Magic happens yarn has been mordanted with myrobalan seed pods and then dyed in a mixture of rusty iron soaked in fermented jaggery. This is what we call Kasimi - no chemical can match the depth of the black it produces.

    • Printing

      Printing of Malkha cloth is done using blocks carved out of seasoned teakwood. For natural dye printing, the cloth to be printed is prepared by mordanting with harda, dried in sunlight and then washed. For the actual printing, the fabric is stretched on a table and stamped with the blocks with one colour at a time. Each colour in the design is printed with a different block, and there can be several colours, and therefore blocks, for a design. Malkha prints are designed exclusively for Malkha by artists and designers, carved by expert block-makers and printed by traditional block printers.

    • Kalamkari The traditional wooden block printing technique of the Machilipatnam region, some surmise that this was imported from Persia in the sixteenth century. Featuring predominantly botanical motifs, the ones we favor at Malkha feature butterflies,the palapitta and kokila birds, pineapples, peepal leaves and flowers. Our printers pre-treat the fabric to be printed with an exacting method of vegetable treatments.
    • Ajrakh The specialised printing technique of the Kutch region of Gujarat; the origins and meanings of ajrakh are as diverse as they are romantic. Some say it means “keep it today”, others that it is the Arabic word for indigo. Either way, the motifs are all geometric, harkening to their Islamic origin and the colors historically tend to predominantly red and blue.

Sizing Chart
Size in inches Small Medium Large
Shirt Size 36 38 40
Shoulder 17.5 18.5 19
Chest size 42 43 44